NKVD Head Nikolai Yezhov Personally Approves List Of Victims Awaiting Trial


Nikolai Yezhov was a secret police official under Joseph Stalin. He was head of the NKVD from 1936 to 1938, during the most deadly period of Stalin’s Great Purge. His time in office came to be known as the “Yezhovshchina”, a term coined during the de-Stalinizaton campaign of the 1950s. After presiding over mass arrests and executions during the Great Purge, Yezhov became a victim of it himself. He was arrested and confessed under torture to a range of anti-Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov was a Soviet secret police of Soviet activity, and was executed in 1940. Photographs of Stalin with Yezhov were retouched to remove Yezhov’s image.  This document, dated September 29, 1938, is a “List Of Persons Awaiting Trial of The War Commission of The USSR Supreme Court.” These people were all charged with “crimes against the state” and were either executed or sent to the gulags. The document is signed in pencil by I.I. Shapiro, Chief of the NKVD First Department and a deputy to Yezhov. Yezhov himself has endorsed the charges, with his signature also in pencil. The list is counter-signed by Lazar Kaganovich, one of Stalin’s closest associates, who, at that time,  headed up the War Commission and personally chose Yezhov to be his deputy. I.I. Shapiro was later executed by Lavrenti Beria who succeeded Yezhov.

A photograph of Nikolai Yezhov with Stalin inspecting a dam in 1938. After Yezhov was executed, he was airbrushed out of ths picture.

This cartoon dates from Yezhov’s incumbency as secret police chief during the height of Stalin’s Great Purge. The caption below the picture says “Yezhov’s gloves of steel” is a friendly pun on Yezhov’s surname, a common one derived from  the word for “hedgehog.” This related to a Russian idiom meaning to grip someone in hedgehog gloves, i.e. “deal harshly with” or “rule with an iron hand.” The reptilian creature being squeezed to death in Yezhov’s hand has three human heads, caricatures of Trotsky (then in exile), as well as Bukharin and Rykov, both forced to “confess” to being murderers and fascist agents at a 1938 Moscow show trial. The tail of the creature ends in a Nazi swastika.